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澳大利亚地理

发布时间:2010-04-12 阅读次数:1122

    澳大利亚在地理上拥有两个世界之最:它是世界上最小的陆地,也是世界上最大的岛屿。澳大利亚位于南半球,总面积770万平方公里,居世界第六,仅次于俄罗斯、加拿大、中国、美国和巴西,约相当于五分之四个中国。它东临太平洋,西临印度洋,海岸线长达37000公里。 

    澳大利亚是世界上最平坦、最干燥的大陆,中部洼地及西部高原均为气候干燥的沙漠, 能作为畜牧及耕种的土地只有 26万平方公里。沿海地带,特别是东南沿海地带,适于居住与耕种。这里丘陵起伏,水源丰富,土地肥沃。除南海岸外,整个沿海地带形成一条环绕大陆的“绿带”,正是这条“绿带”养育了这个国家。澳大利亚是世界上第二个最干旱的大陆(仅次于南极洲),80%以上的地区年均降雨量低于600毫米,50%以上的地区低于300毫米。澳大利亚内陆贫瘠干旱地带却蕴藏极为丰富的矿产资源,澳大利亚铁矿储量占世界第二位。

    夏天全国大部分地区气候炎热,除珀斯与布里斯班南部沿海的狭长地带以及高海拔地区外,澳大利亚的大部分地区一月份平均最高温度超过30摄氏度。冬天北方气候温暖,南方较为凉爽,南回归线以南内陆地区夜间出现霜冻的情况也很常见。只有在海拔较高的地区,冬天的温度才接近北欧或北美的气候。

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